1. NOT GIVEN 定位在第二段开头，乌尔城在伊拉克仍有少量剩余信息，但是没有说是physic remains
5. TRUE 同意替换，Basis替换了improvement
6. FALSE Relatives亲属。文中说缺粮的时候大家会走出家庭和邻居合作。
City of Ur
Located near the modern town of Nasiriya in far southern Iraq, on a now-abandoned channel of the Euphrates river, Ur covered about 25 hectares (60 acres), surrounded by a city wall. When British archaeologist Charles Leonard Woolley excavated in the 1920s and 1930s, the city was a tell, a great artificial hill over seven meters (23 feet) high composed of centuries of building and rebuilding mud brick structures, one stacked on top of another.
Southern Mesopotamian Chronology
The chronology of Southern Mesopotamia is simplified somewhat from that suggested by the School of American Research Advanced Seminar in 2001, based primarily on pottery and other artifact styles and reported in Ur 2010.
The earliest known occupations at Ur city date to the Ubaid period of the late 6th millennium BC. By about 3000 BC, Ur covered a total area of 15 ha (37 ac) including early temple sites. Ur reached its maximum size of 22 ha (54 ac) during the Early Dynastic Period of the early 3rd millennium BC when Ur was one of the most important capitals of the Sumerian civilization.
Ur continued as a minor capital for Sumer and succeeding civilizations, but during the 4th century BC, the Euphrates changed course, and the city was abandoned.
Living in Sumerian Ur
During Ur's heyday in the Early Dynastic period, four main residential areas of the city included homes made of baked mud brick foundations arranged along long, narrow, winding streets and alleyways.
Typical houses included an open central courtyard with two or more main living rooms in which the families resided. Each house had a domestic chapel where cult structures and the family burial vault was kept. Kitchens, stairways, workrooms, lavatories were all part of the household structures.
The houses were packed in very tightly together, with exterior walls of one household immediately abutting the next one. Although the cities appear very closed off, the interior courtyards and wide streets provided light, and the close-set houses protected the exposure of the exterior walls to heating especially during the hot summers.
Between 1926 and 1931, Woolley's investigations at Ur focused on the Royal Cemetery, where he eventually excavated approximately 2,100 graves, within an area of 70x55 m (230x180 ft): Woolley estimated there were up to three times as many burials originally. Of those, 660 were determined to be dated to the Early Dynastic IIIA (2600-2450 BC)period, and Woolley designated 16 of those as "royal tombs". These tombs had a stone-built chamber with multiple rooms, where the principal royal burial was placed. Retainers--people who presumably served the royal personage and were buried with him or her--were found in a pit outside of the chamber or adjacent to it.
The largest of these pits, called "death pits" by Woolley, held the remains of 74 people. Woolley came to the conclusion that the attendants had willingly drunk some drug and then lay down in rows to go with their master or mistress.
The most spectacular royal graves in Ur's Royal Cemetery were those of Private Grave 800, belonging to a richly adorned queen identified as Puabi or Pu-abum, approximately 40 years old; and PG 1054 with an unidentified female. The largest death pits were PG 789, called the King's Grave, and PG 1237, the Great Death Pit. the tomb chamber of 789 had been robbed in antiquity, but its death pit contained the bodies of 63 retainers. PG 1237 held 74 retainers, most of which were four rows of elaborately dressed women arranged around a set of musical instruments.
Recent analysis (Baadsgaard and colleagues) of a sample of skulls from several pits at Ur suggests that, rather than being poisoned, the retainers were killed by blunt force trauma, as ritual sacrifices.
After they were killed, an attempt was made to preserve the bodies, using a combination of heat-treatment and the application of mercury; and then the bodies were dressed in their finery and laid in rows in the pits.
Archaeology at the City of Ur
Archaeologists associated with Ur included J.E. Taylor, H.C. Rawlinson, Reginald Campbell Thompson, and, most importantly, C. Leonard Woolley. Woolley's investigations of Ur lasted 12 years from 1922 and 1934, including five years focusing on the Royal Cemetery of Ur, including the graves of Queen Puabi and King Meskalamdug. One of his primary assistants was Max Mallowan, then married to mystery writer Agatha Christie, who visited Ur and based her Hercule Poirot novel Murder in Mesopotamia on the excavations there.
Important discoveries at Ur included the Royal Cemetery, where rich Early Dynastic burials were found by Woolley in the 1920s; and thousands of clay tablets impressed with cuneiform writing which describe in detail the lives and thoughts of Ur's inhabitants.
22. D。pension fund以此盈利。
23. salt monopoly。古代一个国家在盐垄断的基础上发行债券
24. secondary market。是说pension fund只能在二级市场进行债券交易
25. interest rate。
26. quantitative easing。
Bonds have been around for thousands of years, dating back to as far as 2400 BC. Throughout the centuries, the use of bonds has grown exponentially, with both governments and companies using these securities for crucial funding. In this piece, we take a brief, but important, look at the history of bond investing, focusing in on the U.S. bond market.
The first recorded bond in history dates back to 2400 B.C. – a stone discovered at Nippur, in Mesopotamia, now present-day Iraq.
This particular bond guaranteed the payment of grain by the principal and the surety bond guaranteed reimbursement if the principal failed to make payment. Corn was the currency of that time period.
The first ever government bond was issued by the Bank of England in 1693 to raise money to fund a war against France. These first bonds were a mix of both lottery and annuity. An obvious trend appears across the globe, with more and more countries following England’s lead and issuing government bonds to fund wars. In the U.S., the case was no different. The first U.S. government bond begins with the Revolutionary War, when the country issued its first bonds to raise money to fight the war. The Treasury offered loan certificates, the equivalent of bonds. In that year, private individuals bought more than $27 million in bonds to finance the war.
The first U.S. Treasury bonds, which were initially called “Liberty Bonds,” were issued to fund World War I. In 1917, the First Liberty Loan Act authorized the issue of $5 billion worth of bonds at 3.5 percent interest three weeks after the United States declared war on Germany. Long-term government bonds proved to be a safe haven from the stock market collapse in 1929, a year in which they returned 3.4%. Following the crash and the resulting depression, U.S. bonds logged in impressive returns.
During the “Eisenhower Recession,” which was from 1955-1959, long-term government bond investors lost money four of the five years.
During this time frame, rates were steadily rising, putting pressure on government bonds.
During the late 1970s and through the ’80s, non-investment grade public companies were allowed to issue corporate debt; this followed after bonds suffered deep losses following two oil shocks, rampant inflation, and rapidly rising rates.
Up until this point, only investment grade corporations were allowed to issue public bonds, but if a company’s rating happened to fall after the bond was issued, these were still allowed to trade and were called “fallen angels.”
In 1977, however, Bear Stearns underwrote the first new-issue junk bond in decades. By 1983, more than one-third of all corporate debt was non-investment grade. By 1989, the junk-bond market grew to $189 billion.
In 1994, the unexpected rise in the Federal Reserve’s short-term rate sparked a massive selloff in bonds, which was exacerbated by the use of derivatives and leverage.
It’s estimated that $1 trillion in bond assets were lost.
Though one of the first derivatives of debt came in the ’80s, with the creation of collateralized debt obligations, these products remained fairly obscure until after 2000. Soon enough, CDOs became more popular, more complex and exponentially riskier, even though these securities often held high credit ratings.
From 2000 to 2007, worldwide fixed income exposure doubled in size; responding to increased demands for bond-like securities, Wall Street continued to pump out new derivatives, like mortgage-backed securities.
After the housing bubble burst, fixed income financial derivatives like CDOs and MBS’s took a tremendous hit. Owners of these derivatives were suddenly bleeding money, and stuck with toxic assets no one would touch. Alongside non-investment grade bond markets, equity markets also tumbled, forcing U.S. regulators and the Federal Reserve to step in and try to stop the financial crisis.
Although bond funds are attractive to investors because of their relative stability and diversification, many of the more conservative offerings in this category offer little or no protection from inflation.
Simply put, inflation represents the constant increase in the price of goods and services in the economy. Inflation has historically grown at different rates during different periods; for example, it was extremely high under the Carter Administration in the early 1980s, but has slowed to a crawl in recent years. The prices of some goods and services, such as managed health care and higher education, have also grown much more quickly than other sectors of the economy.
But inflation in general serves to reduce the purchasing power of consumers in all areas over time.
This means that a dollar in 10 years will buy less than it can today. Therefore, a bond fund that pays a steady rate of interest that remains at the same level over time will provide its investors with progressively less spending power in the future. Investors who want to increase their purchasing power over time with bond funds can therefore look to the following sectors of the fixed income market.
37. NOT GIVEN。文中没有说哪个人的研究获得更多或更少的支持
39. NOT GIVEN。