题目：Nasca Lines 纳斯卡线条
The lines are drawn in geometric patterns and distinct animal shapes.
As a plane soars over the high desert of southern Peru, the dull pale sameness of the rocks and sand organize and change form. Distinct white lines gradually evolve from tan and rust-red. Strips of white crisscross a desert so dry that it rains less than an inch every year. The landscape changes as lines take shape to form simple geometric designs: trapezoids, straight lines, rectangles, triangles, and swirls. Some of the swirls and zigzags start to form more distinct shapes: a hummingbird, a spider, a monkey.
These are the renowned Nasca lines—subject of mystery for over 80 years. How were they formed? What purpose could they have served? Were aliens involved?
The lines are found in a region of Peru just over 200 miles southeast of Lima, near the modern town of Nasca. In total, there are over 800 straight lines, 300 geometric figures and 70 animal and plant designs, also called biomorphs. Some of the straight lines run up to 30 miles, while the biomorphs range from 50 to 1200 feet in length (as large as the Empire State Building).
THE LINES REVEALED
Peruvian archaeologist Toribio Mejia Xesspe was the first to systematically study the lines in 1926. However, since the lines are virtually impossible to identify from ground level, they were only first brought to public awareness with the advent of flight—by pilots flying commercial planes over Peru in the 1930s. American professor Paul Kosok investigated and found himself at the foot of a line on June 22, 1941—just one day after the winter solstice. At the end of a full day studying the lines, Kosok looked up from his work to catch the sunset in direct alignment with the line. Kosok called the 310 square mile stretch of high desert “the largest astronomy book in the world”.
Kosok was followed by the German Maria Reiche, who became known as the Lady of the Lines. Reiche studied the lines for 40 years and fought unyieldingly for her theories on the lines’ astronomical and calendrical purpose (she received a National Geographic grant in 1974 for her work). Reiche battled single-handedly to protect the site; she even lived in a small house near the desert so she could personally protect the lines from reckless visitors.
WHAT ARE THE LINES?
The lines are known as geoglyphs – drawings on the ground made by removing rocks and earth to create a “negative” image. The rocks which cover the desert have oxidized and weathered to a deep rust color, and when the top 12-15 inches of rock is removed, a light-colored, high contrasting sand is exposed. Because there’s so little rain, wind and erosion, the exposed designs have stayed largely intact for 500 to 2000 years.
Scientists believe that the majority of lines were made by the Nasca people, who flourished from around A.D. 1 to 700.
Certain areas of the pampa look like a well-used chalk board, with lines overlapping other lines, and designs cut through with straight lines of both ancient and more modern origin.
The Kosok-Reiche astronomy theories held true until the 1970s when a group of American researchers arrived in Peru to study the glyphs. This new wave of research started to poke holes in the archeo-astronomy view of the lines (not to mention the radical theories in the ‘60s relating to aliens and ancient astronauts).
Johan Reinhard, a National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence, brought a multidisciplinary approach to the analysis of the lines: “Look at the large ecological system, what’s around Nasca, where were the Nasca people located.” In a region that receives only about 20 minutes of rain per year, water was clearly an important factor.
"It seems likely that most of the lines did not point at anything on the geographical or celestial horizon, but rather led to places where rituals were performed to obtain water and fertility of crops," wrote Reinhard in his book The Nasca Lines: A New Perspective on their Origin and Meanings.
Anthony Aveni, a former National Geographic grantee, agrees, "Our discoveries clearly showed that the straight lines and trapezoids are related to water … but not used to find water, but rather used in connection with rituals."
"The trapezoids are big wide spaces where people can come in and out," says Aveni. "The rituals were likely involved with the ancient need to propitiate or pay a debt to the gods…probably to plead for water."
Reinhard points out that spiral designs and themes have also been found at other ancient Peruvian sites. Animal symbolism is common throughout the Andes and are found in the biomorphs drawn upon the Nasca plain: spiders are believed to be a sign of rain, hummingbirds are associated with fertility, and monkeys are found in the Amazon—an area with an abundance of water.
"No single evaluation proves a theory about the lines, but the combination of archeology, ethnohistory, and anthropology builds a solid case," says Reinhard. Add new technological research to the mix, and there’s no doubt that the world’s understanding of the Nasca lines will continue to evolve.
题名：The Significant Role of Mother Tongue in Education
The significant role of mother tongue in education
One consequence of population mobility is an increasing diversity within schools .To illustrate, in the city of Toronto in Canada,58% of kindergarten pupils come from homes where English is not the usual language of communication .schools in Europe and North America have experienced this diversity for years ,and educational policies and practices vary widely between countries and even within countries .some political parties and groups search for ways to solve the problem of diverse communities and their integration in schools and society .however ,they see few positive consequences for the host society and worry that this diversity threatens the identity of the host society .consequently ,they promote unfortunate educational policies that will make the “problem ”disappear . if students retain their culture and language,they are viewed as less capable of identifying with the mainstream culture and learning the mainstream language of the society.
The challenge for educators and policy-makers is to shape the evolution of national identity in such a way that the rights of all citizens (including school children) are respected, and the cultural, linguistic, and economic resources of the nation are maximized. to waste he resources of the nation by discouraging children from developing their mother tongues is quite simply unintelligent from the point of view of national self-interest. A first step in providing an appropriate education for cultural and linguistically diverse children is to examine what the existing research says about the role of children’s mother tongue is their educational development.
In fact ,the reach is very clear .when children continue to develop their abilities in two or more languages throughout their primary school ,they gain a deeper understanding of language and how to use it effectively .they have more practice in processing language ,especially when they develop literacy in both .more than 150 research studies conducted during the past 35 years strongly support what Goethe ,the famous eighteenth-century German philosophy ,once said :the person who knows only one language does not truly know that language .Research suggests that bilingual children may also develop more flexibility in their thinking as a result of processing information through two different languages.
The level of development of children’s mother tongue is a strong predictor of their second language development. Children who come to school with a solid foundation in their mother tongue develop stronger literacy abilities in the school language. When parents and other caregivers (e.g.grand- parents ) are able to spend time with their children and tell stories or discuss issues with them in a way that develop their mother tongue ,children come to school well-preparedto learn the school language and succeeded in educationally. Children’s knowledge and skills transfer across languages from the mother tongue to the school language.Transfer across languages can be two way :both languages nurture each other when the educational environment permits children access to both languages .
Some educators and parents are suspicious of mother tongue-based teaching programs.Because they worry that they take time away from the majority language. For example,in a bilingual program where 50% of the time is spent through children’s home language and 50% through the majority language , surly children won’t progress as far in the latter ? One of the most strongly established findings of educational research,however ,is thatwell-implemented bilingual programs can promote literacy and subject-matter knowledge in a majority language .Within Europe ,the Foyer program in Belgium ,which develops children ‘s speaking and literacy abilities in three languages (their mother tongue ,Dutch and French ), most clearly illustrates the benefits of bilingual and trilingual education (see Cummins ,2000).
It’s easy to understand how this happens .When children are learning through a minority language ,they are learning concepts and intellectual skills too .Pupils who know how to tell the time in their mother tongue understand the concept of telling time .In order to tell time in the majority language ,they do not need to re-learn the concept .Similarly ,at more advanced stages ,there is a transfer across languages in other skills such as knowing how to distinguish the main idea from the supporting details of a written passage or a story ,and distinguishing fact from opinion .Studies of secondary school pupils are providing interesting findings in this area ,and it would be worth extending this research .
Many people marvel at how quickly bilingual children seem to “pick up ”conversation skills in the majority language at school (also it takes much longer for them to catch up with native speakers in academic language skills ).However, educators are often much less aware of how quickly children can loss their ability to use their mother tongue ,even in the home context .The extent and rapidity of language loss will vary according to the concentration of families from a particular linguistic group in their neighborhood. Where the mother tongue idea used extensively in the communities are not concentrated in particular neighborhoods , children can lose their ability to communicate in their mother tongue within 2-3 years of starting school .They may retain receptive skills in the language but they will use the majority language in speaking with their peers and siblings and in responding to their parents .By the time children become adolescents ,the linguistic division between parents and children has become an emotional chasm .Pupils frequently become alienated from the cultures of both home and school with predictable results .
27. C Bilingual children can make a valuable contribution to the wealth of the country.
28. A to lend weight to his argument
29. B they go on to do much better throughout their time at school
30. D They fear that the programmes will use up valuable time in the school day
31. I ability
32. D rate
33. J area
34. F family
35. C dislocation
37. NOT GIVEN
39. NOT GIVEN