1.T Urban development leads to the demand of the replacement of whale oil.原文第一段。
2.F the price of oil is more expensive than containers.
题目：The secret of yawn 打哈欠
题型：摘要填空(无选项)3 + 段落信息配对 5 + 判断3
When a scientist began to study yawning in the 1980s, it was difficult to convince some of his research students of the merits of “yawning science” Although it may appear quirky, his decision to study yawning as a logical extension to human beings of my research in developmental neuroscience, reported in such papers as “Wing-flapping during Development and Evolution”. As a neurobehavioral problem, there is not much difference between the wing-flapping of birds and the face-and body-flapping of human yawners.
Yawning is an ancient, primitive act. Humans do it even before they are born, opening wide in the womb. Some snakes unhinge their jaws to do it. One species of penguins yawns as part of mating. Only now are researchers beginning to understand why we yawn, when we yawn and why we yawn back. A professor of cognitive neuroscience at Drexel University in Philadelphia,Steven Platek, studies the act of contagious yawning, something done only by people and other primates.
In his first experiment, he used a psychological test to rank people on their empathic feelings. He found that participants who did not score high on compassion did not yawn back. We literally had people saying, “Why am I looking at people yawning?” Professor Platek said. “It just had no effect.”
For his second experiment, he put 10 students in a magnetic resonance imaging machine as they watched video tapes of people yawning. When the students watched the videos, the part of the brain which reacted was the part scientists believe controls empathy - the posterior cingulate, in the brain’s middle rear. I don’t know if it’s necessarily that nice people yawn more, but I think it’s a good indicator of a state of mind,” said Professor Platek.“It’s also a good indicator if you’re empathizing with me and paying attention.”
His third experiment is studying yawning in those with brain disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia, in which victims have difficulty connecting emotionally with others. A psychology professor at the University of Maryland.Robert Provine, is one of the few other researchers into yawning. He found the basic yawn lasts about six seconds and they come in bouts with an interval of about 68 seconds. Men and women yawn or half-yawn equally often, but men are significantly less likely to cover their mouths which may indicate complex distinction in genders. “A watched yawner never yawns.” Professor Provine said. However, the physical root of yawning remains a mystery. Some researchers say it’s coordinated within the hypothalamus of the brain, the area that also controls breathing.
Yawning and stretching also share properties and may be performed together as parts of a global motor complex. But they do not always occur–people usually yawn when they stretch, but we don’t always stretch when we yawn, especially before bedtime. Studies by J. I. P , G. H. A. Visser and H. F. Prechtl in the early 1980s,charting movement in the developing fetus using ultrasound, observed not just yawning but a link between yawning and stretching as early as the end of the first prenatal trimester.
The most extraordinary demonstration of the yawn-stretch linkage occurs in many people paralyzed on one side of their body because of brain damage caused by a stroke. The prominent British neurologist Sir Francis Walshe noted in 1923 that when these hemiplegics yawn, they are s tartled and mystified to observe that their otherwise paralyzed arm rises and flexes automatically in what neurologists term an “associated response”. Yawning apparently activates undamaged, unconsciously controlled connections between the brain and the cord motor system innervating the paralyzed limb. It is not known whether the associated response is a positive prognosis for recovery, nor whether yawning is therapeutic for reinnervation or prevention of muscular atrophy.
Clinical neurology offers other surprises. Some patients with “locked-in” syndrome, who are almost totally deprived of the ability to move voluntarily, can yawn normally. The neural circuits for spontaneous yawning must exist in the brain stem near other respiratory and vasomotor centers, because yawning is performed by anencephalia who possess only the medulla oblongata. The multiplicity of stimuli of contagious yawning, by contrast, implicates many higher brain regions.
Complete the summary paragraph described below. In boxes 28032 on your answer sheet, write the correct answer with NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS.
A psychology professor drew a conclusion after observation that it takes about six seconds to complete an average yawning which needs 28............... before a following yawning comes. It is almost at the same frequency that male and female yawn or half, yet behavior accompanied with yawning showing a 29............... in genders. Some parts within the brain may affect the movement which also have something to do with 30............... .Another finding also finds there is a link between yawn and31............... before a baby was born, which two can be automatically co-operating even among people whose 32............... is damaged.
Reading paragraph A-H, Which paragraph contains the following information?
With the correct letter A-H for question 33-37
NB You may use any letter more than once
33 The rate for yawning shows some regular pattern.
34 Yawning is an inherent ability that appears in both animals and humans.
35 Stretching and yawning are not always going together.
36 Yawning may suggest people are having positive notice or response in communicating.
37 Some superior areas in brain may deal with the infectious feature of yawning.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3?
In boxes 38-40 on your answer sheet, write
TRUE if the statement is true
FALSE if the statement is false
NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage
38 Several students in Platek`s experiment did not comprehend why their tutor ask them to yawn back.
39 Some result from certain experiment indicate the link between yawning and compassion.
40 Yawning can show an affirmative impact on the recovery from brain damage brought by a stroke.
28 68 seconds 29 (complex) distinction 30 breathing 31 stretch/stretching
32 brain 33 E 34 B 35 F 36 D 37 H 38 NOT GIVEN 39 YES 40 NO