2017年12月9日的雅思写作机经-Writing Task 1
The bar charts show the average retirement age in 6 countries in 2004 and 2008. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons where relevant.
The bar charts present the change of time when people retire in 6 different countries in two years.
It is noticeable that male’s retirement age rose in the four years in all countries, among which Netherlands and Sweden witnessed a relatively considerable rise, while the rest of countries increased slightly. The male Swedish and Dutchmen retired at the latest age of 70 and 65, whereas male Germans and Italians enjoyed their retirement much earlier( 48 versus 50).
The retirement age for the female also experienced a rise in most of the countries, with Italy being the only exception, whose female citizens can retire five years earlier in 2008. The Swedish females also had the latest retirement age(almost to 70), followed by Spain and Netherland. By comparison, the Italian and Germany females could retire from their work when they were in middle age.
Overall, the males retire later than females in most countries, although people of different genders in Italy and Germany retire at the same age.
2017年12月9日的雅思写作机经-Writing Task 2
A rise in standard of living in a country only seems to benefit cities rather than rural areas. What problems might this difference cause? How might these problems be solved?
参考范文(Word Count: 269)
Nowadays, fast economic development has led to the rising standard of living in a country, which then brings a lot of benefits to the country’s economy in return. However, this phenomenon seems to be more beneficial for cities but not rural areas. In the following paragraphs, problems caused by this phenomenon and solutions to these problems will be discussed.
Because of the huge differences between cities and rural areas, a large amount of rural population has moved to cities to have a better life, causing cities become increasingly crowded. A further dire consequence is that the relatively less educated migrants from rural area will cluster in certain blocks in cities, bringing about some security issues or even some crimes. Apart from this, that people move to cities also results in a lack of labour of rural areas, which then has a bad influence on the local economic development and give rise to more imbalance between these two areas.
To solve the problems mentioned above, more job opportunities should be created in order to let rural people have a higher income and be able to consume so as to contribute to the local economic development. This could be done by investing more projects in the rural areas by the government, such as supporting the development of local tourism.
In conclusion, the trend that cities are getting more benefits from the rising living standard in a country has enlarged gaps between urban and rural areas, followed by other related problems. In order to solve this problem, more attention is supposed to shifted to the employment and development of the rural areas.
1. What work do you do?
2. Why did you choose to do that type of work (or that job)?
3. Do you like your job?
4. Is it very interesting?
5. (Possibly) Do you miss being a student?
(2)Your Studies/ study efficiency
1. What subject(s) are you studying?
2. Why did you choose to study that subject?
3. Do you like your subject? (Why? / Why not?)
4. Is it very interesting?
5. Do you prefer to study in the mornings or in the afternoons?
1. What’s (the name of) your hometown?
2. Is that a big city or a small place?
3. How long have you been living there?
4. Do you like your hometown?
5. What do you like (most) about your hometown?
1. Do you live in a house or a flat?
2. Do you prefer living in a house or a flat?
3. Do you plan to live there for a long time?
4. What's the difference between where you are living now and in the past?
5. Can you describe the place where you live?
1. What are you usually doing at this time? Do you do the same thing(s) every day?
2. What do you usually do after you get up (or, in the morning)?
3. What part of the day do you like best? (Why?)
4. What part of your daily routine makes you the happiest?
5. What part of the day are you most efficient?)
1. Do you do housework at home?
2. What kinds of housework do you often do?
3. Did you do housework when you were a child?
4. Do you think that children should do housework?
1. Which relative did you most often see when you were a child?
2. Who do you think is the most important member in your family?
3. Who do you like to go shopping with?
4. Who would you like to have dinner with when you have free time?
1. Do you have a lot of friends?
2. What do you and your best friends usually do together?
3. Do you prefer to have several good friends or many regular friends?
4. Would you like to have more friends?
5. Do you think friendship is important?
1. Do you like to spend time with teenagers?Why and why not?
2. Do you know anything about the kind of fashion that teenagers like?
3. What are the best things of being a teenager in your country?
4. How do teenagers entertain themselves?
1. Do you know your neighbors?
2. Do you like your neighbors?
3. What do you think of your neighbors?
4. How often do you see (or talk to) your neighbors?
5. When do you meet your neighbors?
1. Do you like any teacher of yours?
2. Do you still keep in touch with your teachers?
3. Do you think it’s important to like your teachers?
4. Do you want to be a teacher?
5. What qualities should a good teacher have?
1. Do you like pop music?
2. Who is your favorite pop singer?
3. Have you been to any live concert?
4. Normally, how to you listen to his/ her songs?
5. Do you want to be a pop singer? Why?
(13)Fruits and vegetables
1. Do you like to eat fruit(s) and vegetables?
2. What kind of fruit do you like?
3. What’s your favorite fruit?
4. Do you think people should eat more fruits and vegetables?
5. What are the benefits for children from eating fruits and vegetables?
6. How much fruit and vegetables do you think a person needs to stay healthy?
1. Do you have any jewelry?
2. Are you interested in having any jewelry? /What’s your attitude toward jewelry?
3. What kinds of jewelry would you like to have?
4. How often do you wear jewelry?
5. How often do people in your country wear jewelry?
1. Do you often look at yourself in the mirror?
2. When do you usually look in a mirror?
3. Did you buy many mirrors?
4. Do you think mirrors are necessary ornaments?
5. What do you think of using mirrors to decorate rooms?
1. Do you use computers very much?
2. When do you use a computer?
3. What do you use computers for?
4. What part do computers play in your life?
5. How often do you use a computer?
1. Do you use the internet (very much)?
2. How often do you use the internet?
3. How (or, where) do you go onto the internet?
4. Have you ever bought anything on the internet?
1. Do you often travel by boat?
2. Have you ever been on a boat tour while you were on holidays?
3. Would you like to have a holiday on a boat?
4. Where in your country do people most often use boats or, travel by boat?
1. Do you like rainy days?
2. Do you prefer rainy days or sunny days?
3. What do you do on rainy days?
1. Do you like travelling by bus?
2. How often do you take buses?
3. Do you prefer taking buses or subway?
(21)Newspaper and magazine
1. Do you often read newspapers?
2. Do you prefer to read local news or international news?
3. Do you like reading newspapers or magazines?
4. Do you think newspaper will disappear in the future?
1. Doyou like sunny days?
2. How do you feel when you are in the sunshine?
3. Do you prefer to live in a place with more sunshine or less?
(23)Emails and Letters
1. Do you prefer to write letters by hand or to use a computer?
2. Which do you more often write, emails or letters?
3.How often do you write an email or a letter?
1. Do you like to keep up with the latestnews?
2. Why do you want to know the latest news?
3. How important is it to you to get the newsevery day?
1. Do you think it's important to be on time?
2. In your country is it important to be ontime?
3. How do you feel when others are late?
4. Are you, yourself, late very often?
1. Do you like your name?
2. Does your name have any particular meaning?
3. Who gave you your name?
1. Are there many advertisements in your country?
2. How do you feel about advertisements?
3. Do you think advertisements should be amusing or serious?
1. How do children celebrate birthdays in your country?
2. How did you celebrate your last birthday?
3. What kinds of birthday gifts do you like to receive?
4.Do people in China celebrate birthdays?
1. Do you like to learn about history?
2. What historical events do you find most interesting?
3. Do you like to watch programs on TV about history?
4. Do you think you can really learn history from films or TV programs?
1. Do you think the politeness is important? Why?
2. How do people show politeness in your country?
3. Who taught you to be polite?
4. Do you think people in your country are politer than in the past?
5. Do you think you are a polite person?
1. How do you manage (or, organize, or plan)your time?
2. Would you say you manage your time well?
3. Do you find it hard to manage your time?
4. How do you think you could better manage your time?
1. A good parent you think.
2. A historic figure you like.
3. An interesting person from another country.
4. A business leader / businessman that you admire.
5. A knowledgeable person you want to know.
6. An interesting person.
7. A product you bought that made you happy.
8. A piece of furniture you like.
9. An activity you do to keep fit.
10. An important letter that you received.
11. A rule at your school that you agree or disagree.
12. A subject you learned in the high school.
13. A traditional product in your country.
14. An advertisement you have seen recently.
15. An exciting book you read recently.
16. A leisure facility (cinema/theater/ sports center) would like to have in your hometown.
17. A place that people listen to music.
18. A dream home.
19. Your teaching experience.
20. An achievement that you are proud of.
21. A car journey.
22.An occasion that you helped someone (friend or relative).
11-16) Multiple choices
11. the topic of Manwell Lo (event manager)is:
12. When was the travel show first held?
13. How many attendants expected to be this year?
14. What exhibition Will be held?
C. photograph exhibition
15. What does Tom talk about?
A. the Nile River
B. Sahara desert
C. the Andes mountain
16. the winner of competition could be provided with?
A. free ticket to art festival
B. shopping voucher
C. free ticket to a park
17-20) map matching
17. tour operator F
18. air lines H
19. cook demonstrate A
20. India stand B
本次考试的文章两篇旧题一篇新题，第一篇是诺贝尔的人物传记，第二篇是讲了一种叫howler的猴子的生活习性，第三篇是讲澳大利亚博物馆的特点，题目方面难度较大的List of Headings没有出题，但是其它配对题出题量较大共15道题目，对考生的做题速度要求还是比较高的。
The man behind the Nobel Prize
A Since 1901, the Nobel Prize has been honoring men and women from all comers of the globe for outstanding achievements in physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, and for work in peace. The foundations for the prize were laid in 1895 when Alfred Nobel wrote his lost will, leaving much of his wealth to the establishment of the Nobel Prize.
B Alfred Nobel was born in Stockholm on October 21. 1833. His father Immanuel Nobel was an engineer and inventor who built bridges and buildings in Stockholm. In connection with his construction work Immanuel Nobel also experimented with different techniques for blasting rocks. Successful in his industrial and business ventures, Immanuel Nobel was able, in 1842, to bring his family to St. Petersburg. There, his sons were given a first class education by private teachers. The training included natural sciences, languages and literature. By the age of 17 Alfred Nobel was fluent in Swedish, Russian, French, English and German. His primary interests were in English literature and poetry as well as in chemistry and physics. Alfred's father, who wanted his sons to join his enterprise as engineers, disliked Alfred's interest in poetry and found his son rather introverted.
C In order to widen Alfred's horizons his father sent him abroad for further training in chemical engineering. During a two year period Alfred Nobel visited Sweden, Germany. France and the United States. In Paris, the city he came to like best, he worked in the private laboratory of Professor T. J. Pelouze, a famous chemist. There he met the young Italian chemist Ascanio Sobrero who, three years earlier, had invented nitroglycerine, a highly explosive liquid. But it was considered too dangerous to be of any practical use. Although its explosive power greatly exceeded that of gunpowder, the liquid would explode in a very unpredictable manner if subjected to heat and pressure. Alfred Nobel became very interested in nitroglycerine and how it could be put to practical use in construction work. He also realized that the safety problems had to be solved and a method had to be developed for the controlled detonation of nitroglycerine.
D After his return to Sweden in 1863, Alfred Nobel concentrated on developing nitroglycerine as an explosive. Several explosions, including one (1864) in which his brother Kmil and several other persons were killed, convinced the authorities that nitroglycerine production was exceedingly dangerous. They forbade further experimentation with nitroglycerine within the Stockholm city limits and Alfred Nobel had to move his experimentation to a barge anchored on Lake Malaren. Alfred was not discouraged and in 1864 he was able to start mass production of nitroglycerine. To make the handling of nitroglycerine safer Alfred Nobel experimented with different additives. He soon found that mixing nitroglycerine with kieselguhr would turn the liquid into a paste which could be shaped into rods of a size and form suitable for insertion into drilling holes. In 1867 he patented this material under die name of dynamite. To be able to detonate the dynamite rods he also invented a detonator (blasting cap) which could be ignited by lighting a fuse. These inventions were made at the same time as the pneumatic drill came into general use. Together these inventions drastically reduced the cost of blasting rock, drilling tunnels, building canals and many other forms of construction work.
E The market for dynamite and detonating caps grew very rapidly and Alfred Nobel also proved himself to be a very skillful entrepreneur and businessman. Over the years he founded factories and laboratories in some 90 different places in more than 20 countries. Although he lived in Paris much of his life he was constantly traveling. When he was not traveling or engaging in business activities Nobel himself worked intensively in his various laboratories, first in Stockholm and later in other places. He focused on the development of explosives technology as well as other chemical inventions, including such materials as synthetic rubber and leather, artificial silk, etc. By the time of his death in 18% he had 355 patents.
F Intensive work and travel did not leave much time for a private life. At the age of 43 he was feeling like an old man. At this time he advertised in a newspaper “Wealthy, highly-educated elder gentleman seeks lady of mature age, versed in languages, as secretary and supervisor of household." The most qualified applicant turned out to be an Austrian woman. Countess Bertha Kinsky. After working a very short time for Nobel she decided to return to Austria to marry Count Arthur von Suttner. In spite of this Alfred Nobel and Bertha von Suttner remained friends and kept writing letters to each other for decades. Over the years Bertha von Suttner became increasingly critical of the arms race. She wrote a famous book, Lay Down Your Arms and became a prominent figure in the peace movement. No doubt this influenced Alfred Nobel when he wrote his final will which was to include a Prize for persons or organizations who promote peace. Several years after the death of Alfred Nobel, the Norwegian Storting (Parliament) decided to award the 1905 Nobel Peace Prize to Bertha von Suttner.
G Alfred Nobel died in San Remo, Italy, on December 10, 1896. When his will was opened it came as a surprise that his fortune was to be used for Prizes in Physics, Chemistry. Physiology or Medicine, Literature and Peace. The executors of his will were two young engineers, Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist. They set about forming the Nobel Foundation as an organization to take care of the financial assets left by Nobel for this purpose and to coordinate the work of the Prize-Awarding Institutions. This was not without its difficulties since the will was contested by relatives and questioned by authorities in various countries.
H Alfred Nobel's greatness lay in his ability to combine the penetrating mind of the scientist and inventor with the forward-looking dynamism of the industrialist. Nobel was very interested in social and peace-related issues and held what were considered radical views in his era. He had a great interest in literature and wrote his own poetry and dramatic works. The Nobel Prizes became an extension d a fulfillment of his lifetime interests.
1. The first Nobel Prize was awarded in 1895. FALSE
2. Nobel's father wanted his son to have better education than what he had had. NOT GIVEN
3. Nobel was an unsuccessful businessman. FALSE
4. Bertha von Suttner was selected by Nobel himself for the first peace prize. FALSE
5. The Nobel Foundation was established after the death of Nobel. TRUE
6. Nobel's social involvement was uncommon in the 1800’s. TRUE
7. chemical engineering
8. Ascanio Sobrero
12. pneumatic drill
题目: The return of howler
AS AN EAST WIND blasts through a gap in the Cordillera de Tilaran, a rugged mountain range that splits northern Costa Rica in half, a female mantled howler monkey moves through the swaying trees of the forest canopy.
Ken Glander，a primatologist from Duke University, gazes into the canopy, tracking the female's movements. Holding a dart gun, he waits with infinite patience for the right moment to shoot. With great care, Glander aims and fires. Hit in the rump, the monkey wobbles. This howler belongs to a population that has lived for decades at Hacienda La Pacifica, a working cattle ranch in Guanacaste province. Other native primates — white-faced capuchin monkeys and spider monkeys — once were common in this area, too, but vanished after the Pan-American Highway was built nearby in the 1950s. Most of the surrounding land was clear-cut for pasture.
Howlers persist at La Pacifica, Glander explains, because they are leaf-eaters. They eat fruit, when it’s available but, unlike capuchin and spider monkeys, do not depend on large areas of fruiting trees. Howlers can survive anyplace you have half a dozen trees, because their eating habits are so flexible,’，he says. In forests, life is an arms race between trees and the myriad creatures that feed on leaves. Plants have evolved a variety of chemical defenses, ranging from bad-tasting tannins, which bind with plant-produced nutrients, rendering them indigestible, to deadly poisons, such as alkaloids and cyanide.
All primates, including humans, have some ability to handle plant toxins. “We can detoxify a dangerous poison known as caffeine, which is deadly to a lot of animals:" Glander says. For leaf-eaters, long-term exposure to a specific plant toxin can increase their ability to defuse the poison and absorb the leaf nutrients. The leaves that grow in regenerating forests, like those at La Pacifica, are actually more howler friendly than those produced by the undisturbed, centuries-old trees that survive farther south, in the Amazon Basin. In younger forests, trees put most of their limited energy into growing wood, leaves and fruit, so they produce much lower levels of toxin than do well- established, old-growth trees.
The value of maturing forests to primates is a subject of study at Santa Rosa National Park, about 35 miles northwest of Hacienda La Pacifica. The park hosts populations not only of mantled howlers but also of white-faced capuchins and spider monkeys. Yet the forests there are young, most of them less than 50 years old. Capuchins were the first to begin using the reborn forests, when the trees were as young as 14 years. Howlers, larger and heavier than capuchins, need somewhat older trees, with limbs that can support their greater body weight. A working ranch at Hacienda La Pacifica also explain their population boom in Santa Rosa. “Howlers are more resilient than capuchins and spider monkeys for several reasons,” Fedigan explains. “They can live within a small home range, as long as the trees have the right food for them. Spider monkeys, on the other hand, occupy a huge home range, so they can’t make it in fragmented habitat.”
Howlers also reproduce faster than do other monkey species in the area. Capuchins don’t bear their first young until about 7 years old, and spider monkeys do so even later, but howlers give birth for the first time at about 3.5 years of age. Also, while a female spider monkey will have a baby about once every four years, well-fed howlers can produce an infant every two years.
The leaves howlers eat hold plenty of water, so the monkeys can survive away from open streams and water holes. This ability gives them a real advantage over capuchin and spider monkeys, which have suffered during the long, ongoing drought in Guanacaste.
Growing human population pressures in Central and South America have led to persistent destruction of forests. During the 1990s, about 1.1 million acres of Central American forest were felled yearly. Alejandro Estrada, an ecologist at Estacion de Biologia Los Tuxtlas in Veracruz, Mexico, has been exploring how monkeys survive in a landscape increasingly shaped by humans. He and his colleagues recently studied the ecology of a group of mantled howler monkeys that thrive in a habitat completely altered by humans: a cacao plantation in Tabasco, Mexico. Like many varieties of coffee, cacao plants need shade to grow, so 40 years ago the landowners planted fig, monkey pod and other tall trees to form a protective canopy over their crop. The howlers moved in about 25 years ago after nearby forests were cut. This strange habitat, a hodgepodge of cultivated native and exotic plants, seems to support about as many monkeys as would a same-sized patch of wild forest. The howlers eat the leaves and fruit of the shade trees, leaving the valuable cacao pods alone, so the farmers tolerate them.
Estrada believes the monkeys bring underappreciated benefits to such farms, dispersing the seeds of fig and other shade trees and fertilizing the soil with feces. He points out that howler monkeys live in shade coffee and cacao plantations in Nicaragua and Costa Rica as well as in Mexico. Spider monkeys also forage in such plantations, though they need nearby areas of forest to survive in the long term. He hopes that farmers will begin to see the advantages of associating with wild monkeys, which includes potential ecotourism projects.
"Conservation is usually viewed as a conflict between agricultural practices and the need to preserve nature, “ Estrada says. ''We 're moving away from that vision and beginning to consider ways in which agricultural activities may become a tool for the conservation of primates in human-modified landscapes. “
题名：The refreshing of art museum
33. NOT GIVEN
34. NOT GIVEN